20 Characteristics of enzymes

Enzymes are bioactive organic molecules produced by cells of organisms. Enzymes are specific to particular substrate. They contribute to specialized functions in all organisms for converting the substrate to specific product by enzymatic reaction. The main characteristics of enzymes are described below…..

20 Characteristics of enzymes

20 Characteristics of enzymes include
  1. Most of the enzymes are globular proteins and few are RNA-based molecules.
  2. Enhance the speed of biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.
  3. Enzymatic reaction is very specific.
  4. Produces the required product using specific substrate.
  5. For biochemical reaction, enzymes are required in very less amount compared to chemical catalyst.
  6. Enzymes can be recycled for further reactions.
  7. Enzymatic reaction can be inhibited by various inhibitors.
  8. Most of the enzymes are larger than substrate, so that enzymes fit more tightly around the substrate.
  9. The active site in the enzyme structure is very small portion having between 3 to 12 amino acids.
  10. Function of enzymes depends on various factors including temperature, pH, and substrate concentration.
  11. The chemical composition of the active site is important to access the substrate binding and controlling of solvent access during the reaction.
  12. Enzyme active sites have some sort of charges either it be negative or positive, termed as nucleophilic character.
  13. Active site contains less hydrophobic amino acids compared to entire proteins
  14. Enzymes bind with substrate and forms enzyme-substrate complex.
  15. Some enzymes catalyze reversible reactions.
  16. Some enzymes need coenzymes or cofactors.
  17. Enzymes do not change the structure and function of final products once they released from active site.
  18. Enzymes are both intracellular and extracellular catalyst.
  19. Enzymes are two types, simple and complex enzymes.
  20. Simple enzymes are only proteins, while complex enzymes made up of protein and cofactors.

 

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