Genotype definition

Genotype is your genetic property that contains genes, which are inherited from mother and father of the organism. The genotype determines the health potential of your body from embryo to adulthood.  Emerging or developing of any diseases in your body strictly depend on genes of your genotype.

The appearance and behavior of the individual are called phenotypes, which include height, color, shape, mental ability, etc.

The variations in these features among the living organisms due to presence of gene variability in their genotype.

 

Key points

  1. Genotype is genetic makeup or property of the organism.
  2. In scientific way, genotype is inherited material transmitted by gametes.
  3. Genotype determines the phenotype of the organism.
  4. Phenotype corresponds to the observable characters of organism.
  5. Genotype contains genes, which are differ from others.
  6. Alleles are alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus on a specific chromosome and that control the same character.
  7. Homozygote is an individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
  8. Heterozygote is an individual containing different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
  9. Every gene of the organism contains two alleles, each allele can code for particular protein.
  10. If two alleles (AA or aa) of the gene code same type of protein, which show same type of character, then that is homozygous dominant or resistive.
  11. If two alleles (A a or a A) of the gene code different types of proteins, these show different effects on same type of character, then that is heterozygous dominant. However, recessive allele will only be expressed when in a homozygous pair(bb).
  12. Genetic and molecular studies can determine the variation of genetic material by DNA
  13. DNA sequencing studies can determine the individual organism from other organism of the same family.
  14. Nowadays these DNA fingerprint studies are very crucial in forensic studies to determine the particular individual from suspected people.
  15. Scientific studies have taken many years (1988-2004) to complete a single human genome at a cost of millions of dollars.

 

Overview

Mathematical analysis concluded that sexual reproduction will produce unique genotype-containing organism, which is completely different from other organism of the same family (except for individual twins, who are produced from the same fertilized egg).

Generally, genotype differs slightly from other genomic sequence, because it refers to how an organism differs or is specialized within a group of organisms or a species.

So, typically, one refers to organism’s genotype with regard to a particular gene of interest and the combination of alleles the organisms carries.

Genotypes are often represented with letters, for example, Aa, where A stands for one allele (Dominant) and a for another allele (recessive). Based on the combination of these alleles the genotype has been divided in to two types homozygous (AA or aa), heterozygous (Aa or Aa).

Historically, the subject genetics referred to study of heredity, the process in which a parent passes certain genes on to their offspring. Phenotype or appearance of the person (height, hair color, skin color, and eye color) is determined by genes (genotypes). Additional characteristics or phenotypes include metabolism, mental abilities, natural talents, and susceptibility or resistance to certain diseases or disorders are affected by heredity or spontaneous genetic mutations.

 

 

 

Data source

  1. The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS. Year introduced: 1968.
  2. C. Slavkin From Phenotype to Genotype. J Dent Res. 2014 Jul; 93(7 Suppl): 3S–6S. doi: [10.1177/0022034514533569]
  3. Virginie Orgogozo, Baptiste Morizot, and Arnaud Martin. The differential view of genotype–phenotype relationships.Front Genet. 2015; 6: 179.Published online 2015 May 19. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00179]
  4. Mihaela Pavlicev, Elizabeth A. Norgard, Gloria L. Fawcett, and James M. Cheverud2Evolution of pleiotropy: Epistatic interaction pattern supports a mechanistic model underlying variation in genotype-phenotype map. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2011 Jul 15; 316(5): 371–385. Published online 2011 Apr 1. doi: [10.1002/jez.b.21410].

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