A. Membrane bound organelles
Most of the organelles in the cells are membrane bound organelles.
The organelles are……..
- Nucleus: Nucleus is a largest membrane bound organelle in the eukaryotic cells. It maintains the cellular integrity by processing the replication and transcription.
- Vacuole: It is an very important organelle in the plant cells for providing the structural support and storage space for waste materials. Few studies also found their function in cellular growth.
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum: It is found in both plant and animal cells and involved in protein synthesis.
- Golgi apparatus: It is also called as golgi complex, present in all plants and animal cells and involved in various cellular processes.
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: It is involved in synthesis of lipid molecules and steroid hormones and storage of calcium ions and it also contribute to detoxification of harmful metabolic byproducts.
- Mitochondria: Mitochondrium is called as powerhouse of the cell since it synthesizes the energy molecule, ATP by the process , oxidative phosphorylation.
- Lysosome: It is one of the important membrane bound organelles in the cell and contains digestive enzymes which are crucial for recycling the cellular machinery. However, lysosomes are not present in red blood cells.
- Vesicle: It is smallest membrane bound organelle found in inside and out side of the cells. Budding of lipid membrane with cellular molecules resulted in to formation of tiny vesicles which are later fused with cell membrane.
B. Non-membrane bound organelles
Most organelles in eukaryotic cells are membrane bound and this is very advantageous for the organelles as they allow the organelles to isolate certain reactions and process and also monitors substances that can go in and out of the membrane. Non-membrane bound organelles include
- Ribosomes: Ribosomes found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and used during translation of mRNA.
- Centrioles: centriole is one of the non-membrane bound organelles involved in cell split when it undergoes cell division.
- Microtubule: Microtubule is polymers of proteins called alpha and beta tubulin and forms thread like structure, which play a crucial role in cell movement, protein sorting, cell division, etc.
- Cilia: Cilia and flagella are mainly used by prokaryotes for movement or attachment.